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HomeCrops & GardeningSpice Up Your Garden: A Guide to Growing Flavorful Mustard Greens

Spice Up Your Garden: A Guide to Growing Flavorful Mustard Greens


Mustard greens are an excellent choice for those looking to add nutrition and flavor to their garden or container setups, thriving in spring and fall. While they may not withstand cold as well as collards and kale, they can endure a mild frost that enhances their flavor.

In regions free from harsh winter freezes, these greens can be cultivated throughout the colder months, adding a vibrant touch to the garden landscape.

Mustard greens, which form a lush rosette reaching heights of up to 18 inches, are a visual delight and a practical addition to your garden, pairing well with autumn blooms like pansies.

Whether you prefer to cook the larger leaves for a spicy kick or enjoy the tender, young ones raw in salads and sandwiches, mustard greens offer versatility in the kitchen.

For those less acquainted with growing mustards, you’ll find it a straightforward and rewarding endeavor. Incorporating mustard greens into your garden is smart for anyone looking to enrich their diet with a nutritious and delicious leafy green.

Follow along as we dive into the essentials of planting mustard greens and uncover tips for successful cultivation, ensuring a bountiful and tasty harvest.

From Seed to Stir-Fry

Cultivating mustard greens is a straightforward gardening venture, ideal for those looking to add a zesty touch to their culinary creations. This vegetable thrives in cooler temperatures, making it a perfect addition to spring and fall gardens.

Mustard greens introduce a unique, spicy flavor to dishes, ranging from fresh salads when harvested young to vibrant stir-fries as they mature. If you haven’t yet experienced the bold taste of mustard greens, you’re overlooking a real gem in the world of vegetables.

Optimal planting times for mustard greens are in the early spring or late summer, as they prefer cooler weather.

When temperatures rise, these plants tend to bolt, or flower prematurely, which can change their taste and halt leaf production. I enjoy cultivating two batches annually, finding the autumn harvest to carry a richer flavor.

The simplicity of growing mustard greens from seeds makes it the preferred method for many gardeners, though starting with seedlings is equally effective. Those planting seeds directly, begin three weeks before the last expected frost.

From Seed to Stir-Fry
Credit: Gardener’s Path

To ensure a continuous supply, sow seeds in intervals of three weeks until the late spring, then resume in midsummer for a fruitful fall harvest.

For the best results, plant mustard green seeds approximately 1/4 inch deep and space them 1 inch apart in rows or clusters. These seeds will sprout in just a few days, showcasing their ease of growth.

Upon germination, thin the seedlings to 3 inches apart. If using seedlings, plant them 3 to 5 inches apart, starting three weeks before the frost ceases.

Regarding spacing, seeded or transplanted mustard should have 3 inches of space between each plant, with rows spaced 12 inches apart. This dense arrangement helps in minimizing weed growth.

Mustard greens flourish in temperatures up to 75°F, and young plants can withstand dips to 32°F without significant damage. Plant transplants close to your area’s last frost-free date; plant them 3-4 weeks earlier for seeds.

Remember that high summer temperatures can negatively affect growth, leading to seeding and undesirable flavors.

For a fall harvest, choose early maturing varieties and plant them 50-75 days before the expected maturity, which should coincide with about 2-3 weeks post the initial autumn frost, as cooler conditions often yield a superior quality harvest.

Easy Garden Care for Mustard Greens

Cultivating mustard greens in your garden is a low-maintenance endeavor. These plants thrive under the full embrace of the sun or in the gentle shade, cherishing the cooler climes while maturing quickly.

Although a balanced nutrient mix can boost their growth, these leafy vegetables often flourish without extra fertilization if planted in nutrient-rich garden soil. An optimal hydration schedule involves providing them with 2 inches of water weekly.

Additional watering will ensure they remain hydrated if natural rainfall does not meet this requirement.

Maintaining a weed-free environment around your mustard greens, particularly during their delicate seedling stage, is crucial to minimize competition and promote robust growth.

  • Soil Requirements

Mustard greens perform best in fertile, well-aerated soil abundant in organic matter. Fortunately, the diverse soil types found in Utah are generally well-suited for growing mustard.

  • Soil Preparation

A soil analysis before planting helps identify the specific nutritional needs. Following the soil test’s recommendations ensures the right balance of nutrients.

Incorporate any necessary fertilizers or compost into the top 6 inches of soil, limiting compost application to no more than 1 inch per 100 square feet to prevent over-enrichment.

  • Irrigation

Consistent moisture is key to cultivating mustard greens, with watering needs varying by soil composition and weather conditions.

Employing mulch around the plants aids in moisture retention and weed reduction, while mitigating rapid soil temperature changes that can affect the greens’ texture and flavor.

  • Fertilization Strategy

Four weeks post-transplant or after thinning, apply a nitrogen-rich fertilizer at a rate of ½ cup per 10 feet of row. This encourages vibrant growth. Position the fertilizer beside the plants and water thoroughly to integrate it into the soil.

  • Mulches and Protective Covers

Utilize fabric covers to shield young plants from frost and pests. Organic mulches, including grass clippings, straw, and shredded paper, control weeds and cool the soil, reducing water stress and temperature extremes.

  • Weed Management

Weeds can significantly hinder mustard greens’ growth, especially in their initial growth phases. Dense planting and shallow cultivation help prevent weed proliferation and avoid root damage, thus ensuring steady plant


  • Pest and Disease Management

Generally resilient and quick to grow, mustard greens are less prone to pests and diseases. Crop rotation is an effective strategy to prevent most disease issues, promoting healthy, trouble-free growth seasons.

Easy Garden Care for Mustard Greens
Credit: Farm Fresh For Life

Harvesting for Flavor and Longevity

Gathering mustard greens at their peak freshness involves harvesting them once fully expanded. Collecting the leaves before the plant begins to form a seed stalk is advisable.

Initially, it’s common practice to remove the older leaves, giving the younger foliage room to flourish.

If the central growth point remains intact, trim the plant to about 2 inches above the ground. Stored properly, mustard greens can be kept fresh for one to two weeks at 32°F with 95% humidity.

From seeding, mustard greens are ready for their initial harvest in about 5 to 6 weeks. During this process, the entire plant does not need to be uprooted.

Instead, selectively pick the outer leaves to allow the heart of the plant to keep growing. It’s crucial not to harvest more than half of the plant at once, ensuring it remains vigorous and productive.

Those who enjoy tender baby greens can be ready as soon as 20 to 30 days post-sowing. I wait until the plants mature, when their leaves are most robust and flavorful. A clean cut above the plant’s base with sharp shears is sufficient for baby greens.

When it comes to mature leaves, gently detach the outer leaves with a pinch, safeguarding the plant’s central growing point. This technique encourages the plant to generate more leaves, prolonging harvest season.

As the warmer months roll in, mustard plants are prone to bolt, or flower, which often results in a spicy or bitter taste in the leaves. Once the harvest concludes, uproot the plants and add them to your compost, or let the flowers remain to benefit pollinators.

Over time, seed pods will form and dry out on the plant. These seeds can naturally fall and potentially sprout in the cooler autumn season, or you can collect them for planting next spring.

While the new plants may vary if the original was a hybrid, they often yield a delicious crop worth cultivating.

Harvesting for Flavor and Longevity
Credit: Gardening Know How

Top Mustard Green Varieties for Your Garden

Mustard greens offer a rich tapestry of leafy varieties, boasting an array of shapes, hues, and textures to enliven your salad bowl. Diversifying your garden with several types enhances the visual appeal and introduces a spectrum of flavors.

You’ll find a wide selection of these vibrant varieties readily available at local garden shops and through seed catalogues. They are notably hardy, with many types thriving in regions like Utah.

Varieties like Florida Broadleaf, Green Wave, Giant Curled, and Giant Red stand out with their unique leaf colorations and configurations.

These lively and aromatic greens don’t just taste good; they are visually stunning additions to any garden.

Varieties like Dragon Tongue, Red Giant, and Garnet Giant catch the eye with their striking purple leaves and contrasting green veins, adding a dramatic flair to the greenscape.

Others present in lush shades of green, while the intricate, frilly varieties like Red Splendor, Ruby Streaks, Golden Frills, and Scarlet Frills bring a textural depth to the mix while delivering a zesty flavor profile.

Beyond the conventional choices, it’s worth exploring Malachai, a standout not typically classified among mustards. This Komatsuna hybrid, blending mustard green and spinach qualities, showcases thick, lustrous deep green leaves.

It offers the peppery taste of mustard greens with spinach’s tender, moist texture. It also shows resilience against pests like flea beetles, making it a robust choice for fall and spring planting.

Let’s spotlight five exemplary mustard greens that epitomize the best of flavor, texture, and garden aesthetics:

  1. Red Giant: This variety sets the bar with its majestic, deep purple leaves accented by vibrant green veins. It matures in 45 days or is ready for a tender harvest in just 25 days. Its spicy kick is as memorable as its garden presence is visually arresting.
  2. Ruby Streaks: Known for its delicate, lace-like leaves with a purple tint, Ruby Streaks is ideal for late-summer sowing. It promises a harvest of baby greens in 20 days and offers a mild yet zesty flavor.
  3. Green Wave: This variety features vivid, kale-like ruffled leaves with a distinct spicy edge. It’s a robust grower, yielding mature leaves in 45 days, and stands out for its resistance to bolting.
  4. Dragon Tongue: Showcasing broad, wine-colored leaves with a slightly milder flavor profile, Dragon Tongue is both visually stunning and deliciously crunchy.
  5. Tye Dye: Its quick growth and uniquely serrated, feathery leaves make Tye Dye a visually striking choice for both ornamental and culinary use. Planting seeds in intervals ensures a steady supply of its vibrant leaves.

Embracing the diversity of mustard greens enriches your garden’s visual appeal and culinary adventures, offering a palette of flavors and textures to explore.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • How can I prevent my mustard greens from tasting bitter?

To ensure your mustard greens remain flavorful without a hint of bitterness, it’s crucial to avoid planting them in conditions exceeding 75°F. The heat tends to induce a bitter taste in the greens, detracting from their desired flavor profile.

  • Why are my mustard plants flowering in the spring?

As mustard greens thrive in cooler climates, they tend to flower when the days grow longer and warmer, typically in the summer. To prevent this, it’s advisable to harvest the greens before the onset of warm weather and before the plants start to flower.

Consider planting a new batch in the autumn when the weather cools down again for continuous harvesting.

  • Yield of Mustard Greens

Expect a yield of approximately 4 to 6 pounds of mustard greens from a 10-foot row, assuming the plants are spaced as recommended.

  • Nutritional Benefits of Mustard Greens

Mustard greens are an excellent choice for those looking to enhance their diet without adding calories, fat, or cholesterol. They’re packed with dietary fiber and rich in vital nutrients such as iron, beta carotene, and vitamin C.

  • Enjoying Your Harvest

There are countless ways to enjoy the zest of mustard greens, whether you prefer them young and tender or fully grown.

Young mustard greens add a peppery kick to salads and sandwiches, while mature leaves are perfect for cooking methods like braising, steaming, sautéing, or stir-frying.

One of the best ways to savor them is by lightly sautéing in olive oil with garlic and finishing with a splash of balsamic vinegar.

Enjoying Your Harvest
Credit: Simply Recipes
  • Dealing with Flea Beetles on Mustard Greens

Flea beetles might leave their mark on mustard greens, but their presence doesn’t affect the flavor. Most plants will eventually outpace these pests.

For those more focused on the appearance of their greens, especially in commercial settings, yellow sticky traps can help manage flea beetle populations.

Kaolin clay sprays and beneficial nematodes can also protect your greens, with pyrethrins as a last-resort option for pest control, though they should be used sparingly.

Following these guidelines will help ensure your mustard greens are delicious but also healthy and plentiful.

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