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Ultimate Guide to Feeding Your Backyard Laying Hens for Maximum Egg Production


Raising a flock of egg-laying hens offers tangible rewards, especially a continuous flow of fresh and nutritious eggs right from your backyard.

For both veterans in poultry raising and newcomers taking their first steps into keeping backyard chickens, it’s vital to grasp the feeding essentials for layer hens.

Doing so not only promises the success of your poultry venture but also ensures a supply of premium-quality eggs.

Most people managing a small-scale poultry operation aim to ensure a steady output of eggs, whether for daily family use or breeding purposes. Various factors influence hens’ productivity, but nutrition and how you manage their feed play pivotal roles.

Securing the right nutritional balance is crucial for optimal egg production. Moreover, a significant portion of the expenses in backyard poultry farming go towards feeding your flock.

This guide aims to illuminate the critical nutrients needed by laying hens and offer practical advice to help small-scale poultry farmers optimize their feeding strategies for peak egg production.

Determining the appropriate diet for laying hens should be a primary concern, as their nutritional fulfillment directly impacts their egg-laying capacity.

When provided with the correct diet, hens will produce eggs that are more delicious and richer in nutrients than the average supermarket egg.

By focusing on these aspects, you ensure both the health of your hens and the quality of their eggs, turning your backyard chicken endeavor into a fruitful and satisfying experience.

Understanding the Dual Role of Nutrition in Hens

Ensuring your hens receive a well-rounded diet is paramount for their health and egg-laying capabilities. A lack in essential nutrients can diminish egg production, lead to health issues, or even result in mortality.

Nutrition for hens serves two primary roles: maintaining basic health and supporting egg production. Initially, a hen’s dietary intake covers her survival needs, including the sustenance of her immune, cardiovascular, and digestive systems.

Surplus nutrients beyond these foundational requirements are allocated for producing eggs. However, if a hen’s diet barely meets her basic needs, her potential for optimal egg production remains untapped due to insufficient nutrients.

Similarly, an imbalanced diet can severely impair or halt egg production. Hence, offering hens a high-quality, balanced diet is crucial to enhance their egg yield.

So, what are the key nutrients to focus on in a hen’s diet? A comprehensive feeding plan encompasses various vital nutrients.

For layer hens, distinct nutritional needs separate them from non-layers, crucial for sustaining their health and egg production. Producing eggs demands a lot, nutritionally speaking.

The most critical ones to monitor in your hen feeding strategy include: A diet rich in proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals is essential.


Essential for health and egg output, protein is particularly crucial. Layer feeds generally have elevated protein levels to cater to the demands of egg production.

Proteins play a multifaceted role, from supporting growth and egg development to facilitating hormone production, immune function, and tissue repair. It’s also a key component of the egg, particularly the albumen or white.

The primary protein source in poultry diets is often soybean meal, with some feeds incorporating animal-derived proteins. A diet with about 18% crude protein is recommended for laying hens to sustain robust egg production.


Energy from the diet is used for various activities, from daily movement to more vigorous actions like attempting flight. Energy in poultry feed comes from carbohydrates, protein, and fats.

Carbohydrates are the main energy source, with corn, wheat, and barley serving as quality carb sources in layer feed. While carbohydrates dominate, feeds also include fats from plant or animal sources to boost energy content and reduce dust.

Calcium and Phosphorus

These minerals are crucial in a hen’s diet, vital for several bodily functions and overall health. Calcium, in particular, is key for strong eggshell formation.

While most layer feeds are formulated to meet these mineral needs, ensuring a correct calcium to phosphorus ratio is essential, with a general guideline of a 2:1 ratio.

However, laying hens might benefit from a higher ratio to support eggshell quality. Supplementary calcium sources like oyster shells or ground eggshells can help meet these requirements.

Providing a complete, balanced layer feed is essential for meeting all nutritional needs of hens. High-quality feeds are designed to deliver these nutrients in the right proportions, supporting the health and productivity of your hens.

Choosing the Right Feed

As young female chickens approach the age of five to six months, the onset of their egg-laying phase demands a shift in their nutritional requirements, moving from growth to egg production.

This pivotal change emphasizes the need for a diet that supports egg production without halting it.

While the demand for protein decreases slightly, the necessity for increased levels of calcium, in addition to phosphorus and vitamin D, becomes paramount for the development of eggshells.

Opting for commercially prepared layer feeds for those managing laying hens ensures these birds receive the required nutrition.

In the U.S., it’s imperative for all poultry feeds to come with a nutrition label, making it easier for poultry keepers to select a feed tailored for layers, ideally containing 16 to 18 percent protein.

Selecting a comprehensive feed from your local supplier is advised to meet the nuanced needs of developing and laying hens.

Familiarizing yourself with the nutritional information on the feed label will help you align the feed’s contents with what is recommended for these birds, focusing on protein, fat, and fiber levels.

Specifically, the feed’s label should detail the amounts of calcium and phosphorus present, as these elements are critical for eggshell formation.

Small flock owners may find the array of available layer feeds daunting, yet feeds labeled specifically for laying hens simplify meeting their flock’s dietary needs. A laying hen typically consumes between 100 and 150 grams of feed daily.

Therefore, a small flock of ten hens will go through a 50-pound bag of feed in about 20 days, underscoring the importance of providing adequate feed.

While some may consider preparing their layer feed, this requires a deep understanding of poultry nutritional needs and the nutritional value of different ingredients.

layer feed
Credit: Youtube

Homemade feed preparation could lead to imbalances that negatively impact your flock’s health and productivity, not to mention the additional equipment and effort required.

The calcium content in the feed should ideally range between 3.5 and 4.5 percent, with phosphorus levels at 0.4 percent or higher. Young hens should be started on layer rations at about 18 weeks or upon the arrival of the first egg.

Beyond laying hens, the nutritional welfare of pullets—female chickens under a year old and not yet laying eggs—should not be overlooked.

Factors such as nutrition, illness, stress, and environmental conditions can affect their growth and delay the onset of egg laying.

Most pullets will lay their first egg between 20 to 25 weeks, necessitating a complete starter/grower diet rich in protein (at least 18 percent) from 1 to 6 weeks of age.

A well-balanced layer ration is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of egg-laying hens and offers a cost-effective solution.

While the market offers a variety of specialized feeds, including those enriched with vitamins and omega-3 and options for those seeking natural, soy-free, non-GMO, or organic feeds, the choice ultimately aligns with your poultry-keeping objectives.

Keeping Your Hen Feed Fresh: Why It Matters

Essential Tips for Feeding Your Laying Hens:

Freshness of Feed

Ensuring your laying hen’s feed is always fresh is paramount. Feeds that have sat for too long may not only diminish in quality but also impact the nutritional uptake of your hens due to oxidation of minerals, which interferes with the absorption of other vital nutrients.

A practical guideline is to use feed within three months of its manufacturing date, which should be clearly labeled on the packaging. If the date isn’t visible, don’t hesitate to inquire with your supplier.


Proper Storage of Feed

To maintain the integrity and quality of your hen feed, store it in a dry place where the temperature is controlled, akin to room conditions. Avoid exposing feed to direct sunlight or high temperatures, which can degrade its quality.

Equally important is ensuring that the storage area is secure from rodents and insects to prevent contamination and loss of feed. These pests are not just a nuisance but potential carriers of diseases that could affect your flock.

Nutritional Balance

While it’s rare in smaller or backyard settings, it’s crucial to monitor your laying hens’ nutrient intake to prevent overconsumption.

Overindulgence, often caused by supplementing the birds’ diet with additional treats or feeds beyond their complete diet, can lead to health issues.

Feeds are formulated to provide all necessary nutrients; excess protein and minerals can cause urinary system complications, and too much energy intake can result in unwanted fat accumulation, which could adversely affect the productivity and health of your hens.

Adhering to these guidelines ensures the health and productivity of your laying hens and the quality and safety of their eggs. Remember, the key to a successful laying hen diet is freshness, proper storage, and balanced nutrition.

Keeping Your Hen Feed Fresh
Credit: Healthline

Optimal Nutrition Strategies for Egg-laying Hens

  • The Right Amount of Feed for Your Hens

Determining the correct quantity of feed for your small flock of egg-laying hens is less complicated than it seems. Chickens, by their very nature, regulate their feed intake to fulfill their nutritional needs.

The breeds commonly selected for small egg-laying operations are not prone to excessive weight gain or fat accumulation. It’s advisable to always have a complete layer feed accessible to your hens.

The market offers high-quality self-feeders, ensuring your birds can access their feed anytime. It’s acceptable to offer feed to your flock once or twice daily to prevent leftover feed, which might attract pests.

If you opt for meal feeding, ensure enough feed for the hens to finish within 30 minutes to an hour, ideally feeding them twice daily to avoid underfeeding.

  • Feeder Design and Space Considerations

A range of commercially bought and DIY feeder types can cater to your hens’ needs. The key is simplicity, aiming for feeders that offer ample eating space, shield the feed from weather and contamination, and minimize waste.

Preventing chickens from roosting on feeders is crucial to avoid contamination, with some feeders featuring anti-roost designs.

More critical than the feeder’s style is ensuring sufficient space for all birds to eat simultaneously without stress, which might lead to aggressive behavior. Adjust feeder height so it’s level with the hens’ backs, reducing spillage.

  • Importance of Clean, Fresh Water

Water intake in chickens is roughly double that of their feed consumption. For instance, if a hen eats 0.25 pounds of feed, she will drink about 0.5 pounds of water daily.

Supplying a gallon of water can support approximately 16 hens. Clean, accessible water is vital for their health and production, as eggs are 65-70% water.

Refresh water daily, especially in warmer months, and keep drinking stations clean. Adding a few drops of household bleach to non-chlorinated water can eliminate harmful organisms.

Optimal Nutrition Strategies for Egg-laying Hens
Credit: freedomrangerhatchery
  • Choosing Between Crumbles and Pellets

Poultry feeds are mainly available as crumbles or pellets, each with benefits for digestion and nutrient consistency. Whether to feed layer crumbles or pellets is a personal choice, with adult chickens typically wasting more feed with crumbles.

  • Organic vs. Conventional Feeds

While most layer feeds are conventional, organic options are becoming more prevalent. Although similar in nutritional content, organic feeds are costlier. If selling organic eggs is your goal, remember that organic feed is just one of several requirements.

  • All-Vegetarian Diets

Despite chickens being omnivores, vegetarian feeds are available, focusing more on marketing than nutritional differences. Avoid feeds containing fish or cottonseed meals, which can adversely affect egg taste and color.

  • Treats and Supplements

Treats like scratch grains or kitchen scraps should be limited, as they can distract from a balanced diet. Think of these extras as occasional treats, not dietary staples.

Similarly, while providing calcium supplements like oyster shells can be beneficial, it’s often unnecessary if the primary diet is nutritionally complete.

  • The Role of Grit in Digestion

Chickens naturally consume pebbles to aid digestion. However, this is not necessary with commercial feeds that are already ground. Only birds eating whole grains typically need additional grit.

  • The Pros and Cons of Fermented Feed

Fermented feed can improve digestion and hydration but also attracts pests and requires diligent feeder maintenance to prevent spoilage.

Understanding Feed Costs and Types for Laying Hens

The cost of poultry feed fluctuates based on the feed type—such as standard or organic—and the geographic location. Conversely, pellet forms are more cost-effective than crumbled versions because mature chickens tend to scatter fewer pellets.

For instance, in my area of Northeast Ohio, a 50-pound bag of organic layer pellets runs approximately $15. Experts suggest that laying chickens should always have access to their feed, with the average consumption being around 1/4 pound daily.

Breaking down the costs, a pound of feed lands at 30 cents ($15 divided by 50 equals $0.30), making a quarter-pound equal to 7.5 cents ($0.30 multiplied by 0.25 equals $0.075).

Therefore, the weekly expense for feeding one chicken amounts to roughly 53 cents ($0.075 times 7 equals $0.525). If a chicken produces six eggs within that week, a dozen eggs cost $1.06 ($0.53 multiplied by 2 equals $1.06).

This calculation highlights the cost-effectiveness of home-laid eggs, which partly explains the rising popularity of keeping laying hens.

Besides consistent feed, laying chickens require uninterrupted access to clean drinking water, oyster shells, and grit, especially if their diet extends beyond commercial feeds.

Water is essential since eggs comprise water; even short periods without it can significantly decrease egg production.

While layer feeds are enriched with extra calcium, providing oyster shell or calcium grit is advisable for high-performing hens that may need more calcium than the feed supplies. They will adjust their intake of additional calcium as necessary.

Furthermore, if hens receive supplemental food or forage, grit is essential for digestion since it aids in grinding down food for digestion.

Ensuring laying hens are well-nourished through these simple measures guarantees the reward of healthy, productive hens laying fresh, tasty eggs.

Foundations of a Balanced Diet for Layer Hens

Essential Tips for Feeding Your Layer Hens for Optimal Health and Egg Production

Positive Feeding Practices for Layer Hens

Ensure a Nutrient-Rich Diet: The cornerstone of your hens’ health and capacity to lay eggs efficiently lies in selecting a premium layer feed that caters to all their dietary necessities.

Incorporate Variety Through Kitchen Leftovers and Fresh Vegetables: Enhancing your hens’ meals with safe kitchen leftovers and verdant greens supports their overall health and enriches their diet.

Introducing these additions sparingly and as supplements to their primary feed is crucial, rather than the main nutritional source. Favorable additions include:

  • Unspoiled bread varieties
  • Fruits such as apples, berries, tomatoes, cucumbers, and watermelons
  • Leafy vegetables like lettuce, chard, carrot tops, kale, and spinach
  • Both winter and summer squashes like pumpkins, spaghetti squash, and zucchini

Generally, most vegetables, whether cooked or raw, are suitable for chickens, with many showing a preference for broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.

Guarantee Continuous Access to Fresh Water: Constant access to clean, fresh water is imperative for optimal digestion, nutrient assimilation, and egg development.

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Facilitate Unrestricted Feeding Opportunities: Embrace a free-range feeding approach to allow your hens to eat at their convenience throughout the day. This practice minimizes stress and encourages steady egg production.

Enhance Calcium Intake: Given their significant calcium needs for eggshell production, provide your hens with calcium sources such as crushed oyster shells or ground eggshells.

Monitor Behavioral Health: Keeping an eye on your hens for any signs of discomfort or sickness is vital. Hens that are healthy and at ease tend to maintain consistent egg-laying patterns.

Practices to Avoid in Layer Hen Feeding

Understanding what not to do is equally important for maintaining the well-being of your layer hens. Here are essential pointers:

Steer Clear of Moldy Foods: Offering your hens spoiled or moldy food can be harmful, potentially leading to Aspergillosis, a serious respiratory infection caused by fungal spores.

Refrain from Relying on Medications Over Nutrition: While medications are necessary for treating illnesses and injuries, they should not replace a balanced diet.

Prioritize Egg Quality: Monitor the quality of your hens’ eggs, including texture, color, and overall appearance. Tailor your feeding and care strategies to sustain high-quality egg production.

Minimize Stress: Reduce stress factors within your hens’ environment to avoid disruptions in their eating and egg-laying behaviors. Protect them from parasites and predators and ensure their living space is safe and tranquil, allowing them to flourish.

By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your layer hens are healthy, happy, and productive and that they lay high-quality eggs regularly.

Balancing the Diet for Roosters and Hens

Incorporating one or two roosters into a small-scale egg-laying operation can enhance the experience, whether the goal is to produce eggs capable of hatching or simply to enjoy their presence.

It’s important to note that while hens can lay eggs without a rooster, the presence of a rooster is crucial for the fertilization of eggs. For those looking to breed their birds or embark on the adventure of hatching eggs, including roosters can be a fascinating addition.

However, it’s vital to be mindful of local regulations regarding keeping roosters, as some areas may have restrictions. Therefore, checking with local authorities before introducing roosters into your setup is advisable.

Regarding the dietary needs, roosters require significantly less nutrition than their egg-laying counterparts.

In most cases, feeding roosters the same feeding as the laying hens suffices, although their higher consumption of certain nutrients like protein and calcium could strain their kidneys.

To mitigate this, ensuring constant access to fresh, clean water is essential, and incorporating a small amount of apple cider vinegar (about 1 tablespoon per gallon of water) can promote overall health for the roosters and the entire flock.

Additionally, introducing roosters necessitates carefully considering feeder space to prevent aggressive behaviors and ensure harmony within the flock.

Smallholder poultry farming, focusing on a layer flock, can be fulfilling and productive, even in limited spaces. Prioritizing the hens’ nutrition is paramount for maintaining a healthy flock capable of consistent egg production throughout the year.

By providing a diet that meets the flock’s nutritional requirements alongside ample access to clean water, you’ll be well on your way to achieving your poultry-keeping objectives.

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